朗读:Grace

This article focuses on "Received Pronunciation" (RP), the stereotypical British accent mainly spoken in the south of England, and exaggerated by the upper classes, giving it the nickname "the Queen's English".
英语君想和大家分享的是英语的“标准发音”(RP)——英式发音(下面简称“英音”)传统的英音往往是英格兰南部的上层阶级特有,所以标准英语的别名是“女王英语”(因为女王是英国上层阶级的代表)。

There are greatly differing accents across England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, and for a more regional, it's best to choose one particular area, and try to learn that accent instead. Adopting British mannerisms while speaking will also help for authenticity.?
英国是一个包括英格兰、苏格兰、威尔士和北爱尔兰四个地区的联邦国家,四个地区都有自己的英语口音。所以,英国不同地方的口音往往是不同的。英国人经常做的是:先选择好自己居住的地方,然后再去学习当地的口音,正所谓入乡随俗嘛!

This study of RP is concerned largely with pronunciation, while study of the standard language is also concerned with matters such as correct grammar, more formal vocabulary.
所以,今天主要介绍英音发音的6大问题,同时也会科普一些语法和词汇。

1.R's
有关R音的问题

Start with the Rs. Understand that in most British accents speakers don't roll their Rs (except for those from Scotland, Northumbria, Northern Ireland, and parts of Lancashire), but not all British accents are the same.
首先,从音标中的【R音】开始。通常情况下,英国人说话时R音不卷舌,当然也不是所有地区都不卷舌,苏格兰、诺森比亚、北爱尔兰以及兰开夏部分地区的人发R音是卷舌的。

For example, a Scottish accent varies greatly from an English accent. After a vowel, don't pronounce the R, but draw out the vowel and maybe add an "uh" (Here is "heeuh"). In words like "hurry", don't blend the R with the vowel. Say "huh-ree".
比如一个苏格兰人的口音可以让你听不出来他是英国人。因为他们在一个元音后是不发R音的,但是会加一个“呃”(比如“here”会发成“hee呃”)。还比如说,“Hurry”要读成“Huh-ree”。

Some awkward pauses in sentences are also removed by the addition of 'r' before a vowel. For example, "I saw it" becomes "I saw-rit", to avoid the pause between the words 'saw' and 'it'. Another example is "Bacteria are small", pronounced "Bacteria-rar-small".
在一些句子中,R音经常被加在元音前面,这样能避免句子里两个单词之间尴尬的停顿。例如,“I saw it”变成了“I saw-rit”。这句话中,R音被加在“it”之前,避免了“saw”和“it”之间有停顿。再比如,“Bacteria are small”,应该说成“Bacteria-rar-small”。

2.U's
有关U音的问题

Pronounce U in stupid and in duty with the ew or "you" sound. Duty would be pronounced "dewty" or more often "jooty". In the standard English accent, the A (for example, in "father") is pronounced at the back of the mouth with an open throat—it sounds like "arh".
第二点,在“stupid”或“duty”等单词中,发U这个音的时候,要发成“ew”(美音中的发音)或者“you”(英音中的发音)。而“duty”需要发成“dewty”或者“jooty”。在标准的英式发音中,像在“father”中的A音,应该喉咙微张,用靠近喉咙的部分发音——听起来应该像“arh”。

This is the case in pretty much all British accents, but it's exaggerated in RP. In southern England and in RP, words such as "bath", "path", "glass", "grass" also use this vowel (barth, parth, glarss, grarss, etc.). However, in other parts of Britain "bath", "path", etc. sound like "ah".
在大部分英语口音中,A音发成“arh”音这个情况都存在着,标准英语尤其明显。在英国西部的口音以及标准英语的口音中,像"bath", "path", "glass", "grass"一些词也有这个情况,即应该读成”barth”, “parth”, “glarss”, “grarss”。但也有发“ah”音的,读起来是“bath”,“path”,“glass”,“grass”。

3.Heavy consonants
重读辅音

Enunciate on heavy consonant words. Pronounce that T in "duty" as T: not as the American D as doody so that duty is pronounced dewty or a softer jooty.
在读辅音的时候要加重语气!“duty”中发T音的时候,不要像美音中,把duty读成Doody,这样的发音太重了。在英音中,duty应该发成稍微轻柔一些,读成“dewty”或“jooty”。

The words "human being" are pronounced "hewman being" or "yooman been" in certain areas, though it could be pronounced "hewman bee-in".
虽然“Human being”应该读成“hewman bee-in”,在有些地区也被读成“hweman being”或“yooman been”。

4.T's
有关T音的问题

Sometimes drop the Ts. With some accents, including cockney accents, Ts aren't pronounced in words where Americans use D to replace it. However, there is usually a short pause or "hiccup" in its place.
有时候你也可以不发T音。在一些英音中,甚至包括伦敦腔,T音在一个单词中都是不发音的。而在美音中通常会用D音替换掉T音。不过,当你不发T音的话,记得在T音那个位置稍稍停顿一下。

5.Pronunciation
语音

(1)Observe that some words are pronounced as written.
注意观察:有些词可以按照拼写方式来读。如,“herb”这个单词应该和“H”的发音相近。

(2)Observe that H is not always pronounced.
注意:H音有时不发音!

(3)Say "bean", not "bin" for the word been.In an American accent, this is often pronounced "bin". In an English accent, "bean" is a common pronunciation, but "bin" is more often heard in casual speech where the word isn't particularly stressed.
Been应该发成“bean”而不是“bin”。在美音中,been经常发成“bin”,而在英音中,“bean”是最常用的发音。只有在日常轻松交流的场合下,不需要特别强调been的时候才会读“bin”。

(4)Notice that two or more vowels together may prompt an extra syllable. For example, the word "road" would usually be pronounced rohd, but in Wales and with some people in Northern Ireland it might be pronounced ro.ord.
注意一下:如果有两个及以上的元音在一起时,这几个原因将会产生另外一个音节。例如,road这个单词经常被读成“rohd”,但在威尔士和北爱尔兰的发音则是“ro.ord”。

6.Listening and copying
边听边模仿

(1)Listen to the "music" of the language. All accents and dialects have their own musicality. Pay attention to the tones and emphasis of British speakers.
听一些英国人唱的英语歌曲!所有口音和方言都有自己的音乐。在听歌时,注意演唱者的声调和发音重点。

(2)Get a British person to say well known sentences: "How now brown cow" and "The rain in Spain stays mainly on the plain" and pay close attention.?
让英国人说一些地道的绕口令。像"How now brown cow" 以及 "The rain in Spain stays mainly on the plain" 。并关注他的语音语调。

Tips:
①"How now brown cow" 和"The rain in Spain stays mainly on the plain" ,这两句都是很出名的绕口令。其中,"The rain in Spain stays mainly on the plain"出自奥黛丽赫本演的《窈窕淑女》,这句话是赫本在片中练习的一句绕口令,意思是“西班牙的降雨大多降落在平原”。

(3)Immerse yourself in the British culture; this means surround yourself with individuals that speak, live, walk and talk British English.Anything with a British speaker will work—try listening to the BBC (which provides free radio and television newscasts on the web) songs with British singers, or movies with British characters.
平时,尽可能多地沉浸在英国文化中。也就是说,尽可能多地和英国人接触。任何和英国人有关的东西都会有所帮助,例如:听BBC(它在网上也提供免费的音频节目和视频新闻报道),听英国歌手演唱的歌,或者是看具有英国特色的电影。

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